Ankara Agreement GERMANY'S PREFERENCES ON THE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT PROVISIONS OF THE ANKARA AGREEMENT: THE WIRTSCHAFTSWUNDER AND OPPORTUNITY AND EFFORTS OF TURKISH DIPLOMACY European Union Studies Association, 11th Biennial International Conference Ankara Agreement
Why did Germany support provisions on freedom of movement for Turkish workers in the Association Agreement between the European Economic Community (EEC) and Turkey, which was concluded in 1963? This is puzzling given that Germany was fervently opposed to other common EU measures on legal economic migration since immigration policy was communitarized by the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999. The papers test two hypotheses. First, that the a positive economic situation induces the German government to
... n government to support common EU measures as in periods of strong growth Germany has more open immigration policies and there is a positive relationship between open national immigration policies and support for common EU measures. Second, a sending country (or a group of sending countries) needs to exert diplomatic pressure on the German government in order for it to support common EU measures on legal economic migration. For this to be successful there need to be two conditions in place, the sending country must have the opportunity to exert influence, due to strong historical ties with Germany or being important for geo-political reasons, and frame the need for common EU measures on legal migration in an effective manner. The hypotheses are confirmed for the case of Turkey and the Ankara Agreement and are used to assemble a theoretically eclectic and generally applicable framework able to explain Germany's support for common EU measures on legal economic migration.