Long-Term Hematotoxicity After Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-Octreotate

A. Sabet, K. Ezziddin, U.-F. Pape, H. Ahmadzadehfar, K. Mayer, T. Poppel, S. Guhlke, H.-J. Biersack, S. Ezziddin
2013 Journal of Nuclear Medicine  
Myelosuppression may be the dose-limiting toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, severity, and reversibility of long-term hematotoxicity in a large cohort of patient undergoing PRRT with 177 Lu-octreotate for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. The impact of potential risk factors, including initial cytopenia, advanced bone metastatic disease, previous chemotherapy, and cumulative administered activity, and the protective
more » ... and the protective effects of splenectomy were of particular interest. Methods: A total of 632 PRRT courses were performed in 203 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. A mean activity of 7.9 GBq of 177 Lu-octreotate was administered per treatment cycle, with a goal of 4 courses at standard intervals of 3 mo. Hematologic parameters were determined before each treatment course, at 2-to 4-wk intervals between the courses, 8-12 wk after the last course of PRRT, and at 3-month intervals for further follow-up. Toxicity was recorded with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0). Results: Myelodysplastic syndrome as a delayed adverse event was documented in 3 patients (1.4%). Relevant but reversible hematotoxicity (grade 3 or 4) occurred in 23 patients (11.3%) and 29 administrations (4.6%), with leukopenia in 2.7% and thrombocytopenia in 1.7%. The mean time to blood count recovery was 12 mo after the termination of PRRT (range, 3-22 mo). The only preexisting factor that contributed to hematotoxicity was initial cytopenia (P , 0.001). A high level of cumulative administered activity (.29.6 GBq) was associated with relevant leukopenia (P , 0.001). None of the patients with a history of splenectomy developed grade 3 or 4 hematotoxicity, and splenectomy was inversely associated with the incidence and degree of leukopenia (P 5 0.02) and thrombocytopenia (P 5 0.03) Conclusion: PRRT-induced myelosuppression is almost invariably reversible and rarely requires clinical measures. Administered activity and initial cytopenia are the only factors contributing to myelosuppression, whereas splenectomy may exert a protective effect.
doi:10.2967/jnumed.112.119347 pmid:24009272 fatcat:qfkuzg5pgvgebhrt5leeybd35q