Millimeter and submillimeter excess emission in M 33 revealed byPlanckand LABOCA
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Previous studies have shown the existence of an excess of emission at submillimeter (submm) and millimeter (mm) wavelengths in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of many low-metallicity galaxies. The goal of the present study is to model separately the emission from the star forming (SF) component and the emission from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. We decomposed the observed SED of M33 into its SF and diffuse components. Mid-infrared (MIR) and
... ed (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) fluxes were extracted from Spitzer and Herschel data. At submm and mm wavelengths, we used ground-based observations from APEX to measure the emission from the SF component and data from the Planck space telescope to estimate the diffuse emission. Both components were separately fitted using radiation transfer models based on standard dust properties and a realistic geometry. Both modeled SEDs were combined to build the global SED of M33. In addition, the radiation field necessary to power the dust emission in our modeling was compared with observations from GALEX, Sloan, and Spitzer. Our modeling is able to reproduce the observations at MIR and FIR wavelengths, but we found a strong excess of emission at submm and mm wavelengths, where the model expectations severely underestimate the LABOCA and Planck fluxes. We also found that the ultraviolet (UV) radiation escaping the galaxy is 70% higher than the model predictions. We determined a gas-to-dust mass ratio Gdust~100, significantly lower than the value expected from the sub-solar metallicity of M33. We discussed different hypotheses to explain the discrepancies found in our study (i.e., excess of emission at submm and mm wavelengths, deficit of UV attenuation, and abnormally low value of Gdust), concluding that different dust properties in M33 is the most plausible explanation.