The Problems of Renewal of Old Quarters in Baku Historical Center

Real Proceedings, Corp
2011 unpublished
1 ABSTRACT Today a radical changes connected with disintegration of one of the greatest states of 20 th century and an establishment of new economic relations happens in the planning structure of Baku, as well as in many megalopolis of the postSoviet space. In this connection the urban-planning policy of Azerbaijan Republic that has affected all spheres of human life has changed. Since the end of 1990th years great construction work were developed in the city. It has caused an aggravation of
more » ... n aggravation of transport, ecological and other problems. Life quality of the population has changed. Suffice it to say, that in the result of investment of a prevailing part of capitals into Absheron peninsula, more than half of country population migrated in Baku and Absheron, that promoted growth of unemployment, criminality, environment deterioration, etc. For purpose of renewal of old Baku quarters in the central historical zone the authors had been lead their estimation on a complex of town-planning, historical-architectural, social and economic parameters. Finding of the complex town-planning analysis were the basis for allocation of typological districts in the researched territory for development of methods and principles of architectural-planning reconstruction of residential districts in Baku historical center. As an example, the project of renovation of one of the parts of Baku central zone developed by the author is resulted in the article. 2 INTRODUCTION For today of one of the important problems of Baku urban-planning is renovation of the old central quarters. Unreasonably dense site development of the center which has been built up in the end of 19th-beginning of 20th century, is the conservation zone, it includes separate architectural monuments and ethnographic background building (Fatullayev, 1986). However, during last 15 years it is destroyed mercilessly. Multi-storey faceless buildings have superseded them. Today only separate islands of architectural heritage are still kept in this territory. The majority of the new constructed buildings are residential ones. Unfortunately, they do not decide the housing problem of the population. All flats in these buildings are not at reasonable price for 80% of citizens and more often are empty, expecting their fate. They also do not decide aesthetic and town-planning problems of the city as deteriorate the city image and are constructed contrary to town-planning and sanitary norms. Undoubtedly, construction industry is quite profitable business. That is why today the city administration decided to build up not separate buildings, but whole quarters. But sometimes this quite reasonable town-planning policy reaches up to the point of absurdity. So, recently under the pretext of the new «winter garden» construction the whole old city district has been demolished. Today a lot of sites in the historical central zone of Baku are under the threat of destruction. It is indisputable, that moral or physical depreciated buildings or whole quarters should be renovated and reconstructed. However, thus it is necessary to approach to this process non-ordinary, and on the assumption of features of the projected environment (Kahramanova, 2008b). But today in Baku unfortunately, the projects of modern world architecture or their prototypes are copied without allowance for features of the given environment. It is also necessary to note, that the city relief in the form of an amphitheater going down to Caspian sea (and especially its slopes) imposes constraints on the city site development (Babayeva, 2001). 3 METHODOLOGY Considering the existing complex town-planning situation the author has lead out estimation of Baku quarters in the central zone on a complex of town-planning, historical-architectural, social and economic parameters with purpose of their zoning on typological areas for its subsequent rehabilitation.