Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Electromyographic Biofeedback as Adjunctive Modalities in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Stroke
Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology
Dysphagia is a symptom related to swallowing disorders that impede or hamper safe, efficient, and comfortable oral ingestion. In addition to compromising the swallowing process, dysphagia may impair overall health, the nutritional status, and lung conditions, impacting quality of life as well. Different proposals for the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia have been researched over the years. As a therapeutic strategy aimed at the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagias, the
... ias, the electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback provides improved strength in swallowing and its coordination, understood as the best muscle recruitment during the function, associated with the attention and performance of cortical functions, simultaneously. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is another therapeutic approach used in the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia (NMES). NMES has been recommended as an adjunctive modality to improve the results of exercises based on dysphagia therapy. In view of the possibility of using technological resources in the diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia, this chapter presents the theoretical and procedural framework aimed at the application of EMG biofeedback and NMES as supporting methods in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia, in cases affected by stroke.