Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 Differentially Regulate the Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Spinal Cord Neural Precursor Cells [post]

Marina Sanchez-Petidier, Consuelo Guerri, Victoria Moreno-Manzano
2021 unpublished
Background: Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) represent critical effectors in the host defense response against various pathogens; however, their known function during development has also highlighted a potential role in cell fate determination and neural differentiation. While glial cells and neural precursor cells (NPCs) of the spinal cord express both TLR2 and TLR4, their influence on self-renewal and cell differentiation remains incompletely described. Methods: TLR2, TLR4 knock-out and the wild
more » ... e mice were employed for spinal cord tissue analysis and NPCs isolation at early post-natal stage. Sox2, FoxJ1 and Ki67 expression among others served to identify the undifferentiated and proliferative NPCs; GFAP, Olig2 and b-III-tubulin markers served to identify astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons respectively after NPC spontaneous differentiation. Multiple comparisons were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, with appropriate corrections such as Tukey's post hoc tests used for comparisons. Results: We discovered that the deletion of TLR2 or TLR4 significantly reduced the number of Sox2-expressing NPCs in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. While TLR2-knockout NPCs displayed enhanced self-renewal, increased proliferation and apoptosis, and delayed neural differentiation, the absence of TLR4 promoted the neural differentiation of NPCs without affecting proliferation, producing long projecting neurons. TLR4 knock-out NPCs showed significantly higher expression of Neurogenin1, that would be involved in the activation of this neurogenic program by a ligand and microenvironment-independent mechanism. Interestingly, the absence of both TLR2 and TLR4 in NPCs impeded oligodendrocyte precursor cell maturation to a similar degree. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Toll-Like receptors are needed to maintain Sox2 positive neural progenitors in the spinal cord, however possess distinct regulatory roles in mouse neonatal spinal cord NPCs - while TLR2 and TLR4 play a similar role in oligodendrocytic differentiation, they differentially influence neural differentiation.
doi:10.21203/ fatcat:nzi6dvkax5c4rmu3f3ss7yrecm