Geographical notes

W. A. Taylor
1892 Scottish Geographical Magazine  
EUROPE. The Lakes of Central France.-M. A. Delebecque has studied eleven lakes, and drawn up hydrographic charts of their configuration. The deepest is the Lac d'Issarles, in Ardeche', taking the third place in Europe after the lakes of Geneva and Bourget. Its b:isin, which is very regular, has an area of 227 acres and a depth of 356 feet. It appears to have been formed by a subsidence of the granite. The lakes of Pavin, Chauvet, La Godivelle, Bouchet, and Serviere (Puy-de-D6me) are crater
more » ... s of very regular form. A New Type of Cave.-Monsieur E. A. Martel, so well known for his subterranean explorations, has re-discovered a long-forgotten cave, which is quite unique in character. The opening into the Creux de Souci is a funnel-shaped shaft in bas ilt rock, at the bottom of which a small passage, 13 feet in diameter and 8 feet long, leads into a large cavern, in shape like an inverted funnel, and 160 feet in length. Were the rock limestone, there would be no difficulty in accounting for the form. In basalt, however, no such cave has been found, and its formation can only be accounted for by the evolution of gas. It is further singular that at the bottom of the cave there is water, with a layer of gas (M. Martel says carbonic acid) above it. The questions then arise, whether the basin of water is connected with a spring, and whether the -water itself contains carbonic acid, or whether the gas escapes into the cave from the depths of the earth. In any case volcanic action has certainly been at work. The temperature falls remarkably quickly, for,while the air without was at 51° F., at 8 feet below the mouth of the opening 40° F. were observed; at 13 feet the thermometer sank to 36°, and at 65 feet to 34°. The temperature of the water at the bottom was 35°. This low temperature was observed in an earlier examination of the cave, and is probably due to the evaporation of the water.-Petermann's Mitt., No. 10. Mlttsllindkanal is the title given to a new canal, now in course of construction, which will traverse North-West Germany from west to east, and connect the Rhine with the Weser and the Elbe. From Ruhrort it will run through Miinster, and, crossing the Weser at Minden by means of a bridge 50 feet high, will pass by Hanover and Lehrte and join the Elbe near Wolmirstadt, below Magdeburg. Branch canals will be carried to the Lippe, to Ems, Osnabriick, Brunswick, and
doi:10.1080/00369229208732588 fatcat:ishispzoonfh7gnwt6hmt7rqzq