Low temperature reverses the resistance to glyphosate in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis)
Environmental factors and the addition of adjuvants to the spray tank mix may interfere with glyphosate efficiency in hairy fleabane control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of air temperature and the addition of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 to glyphosate in the control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) hairy fleabane. Treatments consisted of air temperatures of 12°C and 25°C, six doses of glyphosate from zero to 2,880 g · ha−1, the presence or absence of
... nce or absence of (NH4)2SO4 in the spray solution, and one GS and another GR biotype. At the lowest tested dose (180 g · ha−1), control of the GR biotype was 91% and 20% when the plants were kept at 12°C and 25°C, respectively, reducing the resistance factor (RF) by 9.30 times and was associated to the reduction of temperature. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 increased the control by 10−20% at high glyphosate doses and at 25°C. The resistance of hairy fleabane to glyphosate was completely reversed when the plants were maintained at 12°C. At this temperature, resistant plants were controlled even at doses well below that recommended for the control of this species. At 25°C, a dose four times higher than that recommended was required for satisfactory control. At the field level, under situations of low temperatures, it was possible to improve the efficacy of glyphosate applications in hairy fleabane control, if there were no other mechanisms of resistance involved.