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Today's optical neuromodulation techniques are rapidly evolving, benefiting from advances in photonics, genetics, and materials science. In this review, we provide an up-to-date overview of the latest optical approaches for neuromodulation. We begin with the physical principles and constraints underlying the interaction between light and neural tissue. We then present advances in optical neurotechnologies in seven modules: conventional optical fibers, multifunctional fibers, optical waveguides,doi:10.1093/nsr/nwac007 fatcat:zsbkuocjz5hcjmt2p7tvfmlbze