Shedding light on neurons: optical approaches for neuromodulation

Shan Jiang, Xiang Wu, Nicholas J Rommelfanger, Zihao Ou, Guosong Hong
2022 National Science Review  
Today's optical neuromodulation techniques are rapidly evolving, benefiting from advances in photonics, genetics, and materials science. In this review, we provide an up-to-date overview of the latest optical approaches for neuromodulation. We begin with the physical principles and constraints underlying the interaction between light and neural tissue. We then present advances in optical neurotechnologies in seven modules: conventional optical fibers, multifunctional fibers, optical waveguides,
more » ... light-emitting diodes, upconversion nanoparticles, optical neuromodulation based on secondary effects of light, and unconventional light sources facilitated by ultrasound and magnetic fields. We conclude our review with an outlook on new methods and mechanisms to afford optical neuromodulation with minimal invasiveness and footprints.
doi:10.1093/nsr/nwac007 fatcat:zsbkuocjz5hcjmt2p7tvfmlbze