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Nanoparticles and nanopores inside materials have a wide range of applications. There are various methods available to precipitate nanoparticles and to produce nanopores inside materials, such as thermal annealing and deposition. Here we will focus on using high-energy electron-beam irradiation in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The main advantage of this method is that the precipitation can be confined within a desired area, and thus it allows direct-write lithography. Two examplesdoi:10.1017/s1431927609099462 fatcat:x2etg4fdrnhjnjii5yuy4phscy