The biomarkers related to immune related adverse events caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
AbstractThe enthusiasm for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), an efficient tumor treatment model different from traditional treatment, is based on their unprecedented antitumor effect, but the occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) is an obstacle to the prospect of ICI treatment. IrAEs are a discrete toxicity caused by the nonspecific activation of the immune system and can affect almost all tissues and organs. Currently, research on biomarkers mainly focuses on the
... n the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, skin and lung. Several potential hypotheses concentrate on the overactivation of the immune system, excessive release of inflammatory cytokines, elevated levels of pre-existing autoantibodies, and presence of common antigens between tumors and normal tissues. This review lists the current biomarkers that might predict irAEs and their possible mechanisms for both nonspecific and organ-specific biomarkers. However, the prediction of irAEs remains a major clinical challenge to screen and identify patients who are susceptible to irAEs and likely to benefit from ICIs.