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Sex Differences in the Gut Microbiome Drive Hormone-Dependent Regulation of Autoimmunity
Microbial exposures and sex hormones exert potent effects on autoimmune diseases, many of which are more prevalent in women. We demonstrate that early-life microbial exposures determine sex hormone levels and modify progression to autoimmunity in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Colonization by commensal microbes elevated serum testosterone and protected NOD males from T1D. Transfer of gut microbiota from adult males to immature females altered the recipient'sdoi:10.1126/science.1233521 pmid:23328391 fatcat:5nadpkxavvgrvffbabqv5xmolu