Transportation technology quick reference file [report]

E.W. Shepherd
1981 unpublished
AtSTRACT This oHkHcattonlsacolloctloaoHteas written ky dtfrtrontMithorson sdhjocts rolattna. to the transportation of rodlooctlvt Materials. Tht turoost of tnt docwotat fs to attt tfct cantlwjlna Mod for 1nfai*at1o* on satclHc sabjocts for dltsaalnation te the labile at thtlr roootst. The softjaets Included wort ttloctod on tat oasis of tna sjnostfons nost often tskod akoat radloacttvt Materials and tholr transportation. Additional sakjocts art btlni eonsldtrod and will oc IncTadad In tho
more » ... . Tho looot-loaf notebook frrnat Is vtod to facilitate tka aadatlna of this notorial. Tht date mad 1n nony of tht papers roprtttat tht host avallahlt at tfao of pobllcatloa and will ko matted as aort corrtnt Information kocants avallaklt. T/gmm OF mis ooraKK About 70 percent of Sandia's resources are applied to defense-related research and development program, primarily In support of nuclear weapons programs. Approximately 30 percent of the Labs' resources are applied to energy program. In 1978 the DOE established the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandfa National Laboratories to support transportation responsibilities vested In DOE's Albuquerque Area Office. The Center was In direct response to the need to resolve problem posed by the present and future need to transport nuclear wastes produced by: (1) the gwernaent as by-products of its defense-related program, and (2) the various portions of the commercial nuclear power Industry. Responsibilities Assuring a national capability to analyze and resolve the complex problems of nuclear material transportation. Assuring availability of transportation systems for national nuclear waste storage and disposal program and providing a focal point for study of these system. Providing analyses and recommendations of transportation system. In tents of their safety, reliability, public acceptability and cost-effectiveness. Providing the Interface between the various participants Involved in the transport of radioactive materials. Approach The TTC efforts are directed toward determining and understanding the needs of private Industry, government and the public. Further, through Its own staff and through contractual efforts of private Industry, government laboratories, consultants and universities, the TTC 1s actively seeking solutions to these problem Inherent in nuclear material transportation. To minimize redundant expense, the TTC Integrates the DOE transportation program with those funded by the Department of Transportation, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, other federal agencies and private industry. Organization The pivotal activity of 'System Development* involves studies of total transportation system for defense waste, for the domestic fuel cycle, for advanced reactors and for the International fuel cycles. Specifically, these activities result In develop ment or analysis of various types of packaging, vthlcHs and carrltr systems needed for different transportation situations. Supporting tlwst activities Istht TTC's "Technology" effort which provides the basis for systems development, for manufacturing and quality assurance and for any necessary certification. This effort Includes development of full scale and fractional scale analysis and test techniques, and use of performance and proof-testing. A third activity of the TTC is directed to "Institutional Issues" surrounding transpor tation of radioactive materials. These studies are aimed at obtaining a complete understanding of the needs and problems of the nuclear materials transportation industry; obtaining current data and performing analyses to Indicate the trend of regulatory policy, legislative Initiative and public acceptance of transportation and Identifying the possible Impacts of future changes. Studies also focus on quantifying risks of nuclear waste transportation and preparing material to assist in achieving public understanding of these risks. The TTC also operates the "Technology Information Center" designed to systematically collect and disseminate relevant information. Information requests are mat by using special computer data banks, staff reports and films and slide presentations about specific transportation issues. The TTC published a quick reference document contain ing short summaries of transportation Issues, eased on questions and topics appear ing prominently in the news medio, scientific journals and other publications, this quick reference document covers topics such as state and local laws governing trans portation bf nuclear material, accident statistics, plutonitmi toxicity and insurance and liability Issues. May 1981 ITEM TTC/001 ITEM Hay 1981 I TTC/002 LIST OF DEFINITIONS aetlnlde activity (miclur) AURA alpha particle aquifer atoa atoaic iwaber atoaic weight back end of the fuel cycle background radiation beta particle biological Half-life boiling water reactor by-product aeterial canister (storage) An elaatnt In the series beginning wlthactlnlua, atoaic nuaber 09, and continuing through lawranctua,. atomic nuaber 103. A Measure of the rate at >*1ch a Material eaitsnuclear radia tion, usually given in tents of the master of nuclear disin tegrations occurring in a given length of tine. The standard wilt of activity is the curie (CI). As-low-as-reasonably-achlevablt. In the nuclear Industry all radiation doses arewintained at far below prescribed standards as reasonably achievable. A positively charged particle aalttedlnthe radioactive decay of certain nuclides. Hade up of two protons and two neutrons bound together, it is identical to the nucleus of a heliua atoa. It is the least penetrating of the three coaaon types of radiation -alpha, bet* and gaaas radiation. A water-bearing layer of penaoable rock or soil. An electrically neutral particle of Matter, Indivisible by chealcal Beans. The nuaber of protons within the atoaic nucleus ofeachcheaical elsaont. The asst of an atoa relative to other atoas. Includes reactors, spent fuel storage, fuel reprocessing, aixed-oxide fabrication and waste aanageaant. The varying radiation of aan's natural environaent. It results froa cosaic rays and frea the naturally radioactive eleaentt of the earth, including those froa within aan's body. A negatively charged particle ealttedinthe radioactive decay of certain nuclides; a free electron. The tie* required for an organlsa to eliminate, by natural processes, half the aaeunt of a substance (such as a radio nuclide) that has entered it. A reactor systaa that uses a boillag water prlaary cooling systea. nrtaary cooling systeasteaa turns turbines to generate electricity. Any radioactive Material (except special nuclear aeterial) yielded in or aade radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear aaterial. A container for reaete handled waste, spent fuel or high level waste, usually cylindrical. The waste will reaafn in this A United Statesgevarmawt-contrelled facility to boused for the disposal of nuclear waste. 11. Financial. Liability, Insurance, lending -Specifies protection Halts for the public. 12. Monitoring, Surveillance, and Inspection -Applies to the physical condition of the equipment and to the packaging. Prohibitions -Usually concerns routes. A. Certain Shlpatnts • Type of nuclear aetertals as well as aeees and purpose of transportation. B. Certificate of Eaargancy Transport - A type of peiait which essentially prohibits the shipment. C. Turnpikes, bridges. Tunnels, Ports -See Attachment mi for listings. D. Local -Indicates states containing municipalities with restrictions (see Attachment VIII far listings).
doi:10.2172/6320435 fatcat:cuvbxtw2orfozduo3psvlsrizy