Andreev tunneling, Coulomb blockade, and resonant transport of nonlocal spin-entangled electrons
Patrik Recher, Eugene V. Sukhorukov, Daniel Loss
Physical Review B (Condensed Matter)
We propose and analyze a spin-entangler for electrons based on an s-wave superconductor coupled to two quantum dots each of which is tunnel-coupled to normal Fermi leads. We show that in the presence of a voltage bias and in the Coulomb blockade regime two correlated electrons provided by the Andreev process can coherently tunnel from the superconductor via different dots into different leads. The spin-singlet coming from the Cooper pair remains preserved in this process, and the setup provides
... a source of mobile and nonlocal spin-entangled electrons. The transport current is calculated and shown to be dominated by a two-particle Breit-Wigner resonance which allows the injection of two spin-entangled electrons into different leads at exactly the same orbital energy, which is a crucial requirement for the detection of spin entanglement via noise measurements. The coherent tunneling of both electrons into the same lead is suppressed by the on-site Coulomb repulsion and/or the superconducting gap, while the tunneling into different leads is suppressed through the initial separation of the tunneling electrons. In the regime of interest the particle-hole excitations of the leads are shown to be negligible. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the current are shown to contain single- and two-electron periods with amplitudes that both vanish with increasing Coulomb repulsion albeit differently fast.