Association of the I/D polymorphism of angiotensinconverting enzyme gene with the development of essential hypertension
Siberian Medical Journal
Objective. To determine the impact of the I/D polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene on the development of essential hypertension, taking into account gender differences.Material and Methods. Clinical data were assessed and a molecular genetic study was performed in 602 people including 401 patients with essential hypertension and 201 individuals of the control group, representing the Belarusian ethnic group. Genotyping was performed using the method of polymerase chain
... polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.Results. The distribution of genotypes of the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene did not differ between patients with hypertension and normotensive individuals: II, ID, and DD genotypes were detected in 100 (24.9%), 192 (47.9%), and 109 (27.2%) patients and in 52 (25.9%), 108 (53.7%), and 41 (20.4%) people of the comparison group, respectively. Differences were found between the distribution of DD genotype in men with hypertension and in the control group, where the frequencies were 28.4% and 17.3% (p = 0.04), respectively, in contrast to no differences in women: 25.8% and 23.3% (p = 0.64), respectively. Carrying the DD genotype in men compared with the ID and DD genotypes (recessive model) of the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene increased the probability of developing essential hypertension by 1.9 times (OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.04-3.44). The analysis of the prevalence of risk factors depending on the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene showed that male patients with the DD genotype more often had burdened heredity in regard to the development of premature cardiovascular diseases (23 patients (37.7%)) compared with the individuals with II and ID genotypes: 13 (21.7%) and 14 (14.9%) patients, respectively (χ2 = 1.16; p = 0.005), and mainly through the paternal line.Conclusions. Development of essential hypertension is associated with the carriership of the mutant DD genotype of I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene in men.