The Relationship between Selected Bioelements and Depressiveness Associated with Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome in Aging Men
and Objectives: Abnormal concentrations of bioelements (magnesium, manganese, chromium, copper, zinc) have been associated with physical and emotional dysfunctions, including depression. This association, however, has not been analyzed in testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) or patients with depressiveness, i.e., when individual symptoms do not form the picture of a full-syndrome depressive disorder. This study aimed to assess the relationship between concentrations of selected bioelements
... the incidence of depressive symptoms in men aged 50 years and older with a concurrent testosterone deficiency syndrome. Material and Methods: Blood samples were taken from 314 men; the mean age of the population was 61.36 ± 6.38 years. Spectrophotometric method for biochemical analysis of magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) was used. The diagnosis of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) was based on the total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels by ELISA. Each participant completed the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia) measuring the severity of depressive symptoms. Results: Emotional disturbances manifested as depressive symptoms were diagnosed in 28.7% of all participants and testosterone deficiency syndrome in 49.3%. In the TDS group, the analysis showed a significant correlation between the level of manganese (R = 0.225, p = 0.005) and chromium (R = 0.185, p = 0.021) with the incidence of depression. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated a relationship between manganese and chromium concentrations with the incidence of depression in men aged 50 years and older with a concurrent testosterone deficiency syndrome. This may indicate that there is a correlation between these bioelements, as well as emotional disorders manifested as depressive symptoms in aging men with a diagnosed testosterone deficiency.