Spanish Validation for Olfactory Function Testing Using the Sniffin' Sticks Olfactory Test: Threshold, Discrimination, and Identification

María Luisa Delgado-Losada, Alice Helena Delgado-Lima, Jaime Bouhaben
2020 Brain Sciences  
The assessment of olfactory function is becoming increasingly relevant, especially in cases of cognitive decline (i.e., neurodegenerative diseases), where olfactory alterations may be relevant as potential early biomarkers. The Sniffin' Sticks Olfactory Test, developed in Germany and validated in several countries, is an objective measure of olfactory performance. This study aims to validate this test in a Spanish sample. This study included 209 healthy normosmic volunteers (154 females and 55
more » ... 154 females and 55 males) aged between 20 to 79 years (mean age = 50.11 ± 15.18 years) as the normative sample. From this group, 22 participants were retested in order to obtain test–retest reliability evidence. Odor familiarity for descriptors in the olfactory identification test was also studied on an independent healthy sample (n = 69), and required cultural modifications were applied. Results indicate that men and women, as well as smokers and non-smokers, performed equally in every test. However, significant differences were found between age groups in every score. The general trend is that olfactory function progressively decreases as a function of age, the elderly group (+60 years) being the one with the lowest scores. In conclusion, this normative data, in addition to the test's cultural modifications, allows the Sniffin' Sticks Olfactory Test to be administered on a Spanish population.
doi:10.3390/brainsci10120943 pmid:33297359 fatcat:bh3xectnsffk3lyjlpbfxqayzq