G4-DNA, Class Switch Recombination and Potential Additional Regulations in B-Lymphocytes
Mature B cells notably diversify immunoglobulin (Ig) production through class switch recombination (CSR), allowing the junction of distant “switch” (S) regions. CSR is initiated by activation-induced deaminase (AID) which targets cytosines adequately exposed within single-stranded DNA of transcribed targeted S regions, with a specific affinity for WRCY motifs. In mammals, G-rich sequences are additionally present in S regions, forming canonical G-quadruplexes (G4s) DNA structures
... ch favor CSR. Small molecules interacting with G4-DNA (G4 ligands), proved able to regulate CSR in B lymphocytes, either positively (such as for nucleoside diphosphate kinase isoforms) or negatively (such as for RHPS4). G4-DNA is also implicated in the control of transcription, and due to their impact on both CSR and transcriptional regulation, G4-rich sequences likely play a role in the natural history of B cell malignancies. Since G4-DNA stands at multiple locations in the genome, and notably within oncogene promoters, it remains to be clarified how it can more specifically promote legitimate CSR in physiology, rather than pathogenic translocation. The specific regulatory role of G4 structures in transcribed DNA and/or in corresponding transcripts and recombination hereby appears as a major issue for understanding immune responses and lymphomagenesis.