Ru-bar and teaching strategies for changing ru-bar system

Yoshifumi Kudo
2011 Japanese Psychological Review  
Japanese psychologists began to pay considerable attention to learners' misconceptions in the 1960s. They coined the term "ru" (ru-bar) to refer to an incorrect rule that the learners believe to be true owing to their inadequate understanding of scientific concepts. Two kinds of teaching strategies for changing the "ru-system" (the representation system of "ru" and its examples) were advocated. The "confrontational strategy" presents learners with counterevidence that conflicts with learners'
more » ... u", motivating the learners' inquiry processes to acquire scientifically correct knowledge. The "conciliatory strategy" avoids situations where learners encounter such counterevidence and, instead, encourages learners to form answers by using clues offered for problem solving. In this article, I will review past research on the effectiveness of the two strategies and point out that these strategies differ greatly with respect to the learning processes they presuppose. Finally, I will suggest that more attention should be given in future research to the role the "application processes of knowledge" plays in conceptual change.
doi:10.24602/sjpr.54.3_312 fatcat:ky5f2abimjhkbhfxjy5gtms54m