Vibrio cholerae: General Knowledge and Epidemiological Aspects

Vicento Diabeno, Erick Kamangu
2019 OALib  
Cholera is an infectious diarrheal disease, highly contagious transmitted by a gram-negative bacteria, Vibrio cholerae. The infectious strain is divided into two biotypes (El Tor and Classical) based on their phenotypic characteristics and three serotypes (Inaba, Ogawa, Hikojima) according to the antiserum agglutination test. The Hikojima serotypes form is very rarely found during an epidemic. To date, several studies have shown that the CTX phage ϕ which is a vibriophage, confers on the
more » ... um its infectious nature. Through its lysogenic cycle, it converts the bacterial host from a non-pathogenic strain to a pathogenic strain, thereby providing virulence genes to the bacterial host. In 2011, several cases of cholera were reported worldwide, and in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the first cases of cholera were identified in 1994 following the displacement of Rwandan refugees in the town of Goma, bordering Rwanda. Since then, cholera has become endemic in this region. In 2017, several cases of cholera have been reported in several provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo including Kinshasa. Hygienic measures must be taken into account to fight effectively against the disease. Strengthening the capacity of laboratory staff, the establishment of rapid molecular diagnostic tools is necessary for proper care of people living in areas likely to develop the cholera epidemic.
doi:10.4236/oalib.1105571 fatcat:6fxqtq5j65hh5d5e6binq6z4cm