Protein phosphatase 2A-linked and -unlinked caspase-dependent pathways for downregulation of Akt kinase triggered by 4-hydroxynonenal
Cell Death and Differentiation
We studied the signal pathways for regulation of serine/ threonine protein kinase Akt in Jurkat cells that had been treated with 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) for caspase-dependent apoptosis induction. Treatment of cells with HNE led to a decrease in the level of Akt activity due to the dephosphorylation at Ser473, a major regulatory phosphorylation site. HNE-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt was prevented by a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor, okadaic acid, and by a caspase-3 inhibitor,
... 3 inhibitor, DEVD-CHO. HNE treatment resulted in an increase in the total level of PP2A activity, release of active tyrosine-dephosphorylated PP2A from the cytoskeleton and PP2A-Akt association, which were all dependent on caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that the level of PP2A activity is at least in part determined by its tyrosine phosphorylation, which is dually controlled by okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatases and protein-tyrosine kinases. Possibly underlying the mechanism of caspase-mediated activation of PP2A, HNE treatment resulted in downregulation of the activity of Src kinase, as a representative caspase-sensitive kinase to phosphorylate PP2A at tyrosine. In addition, activated caspase-3 partially cleaved Akt at a late stage of the apoptosis. These results indicate the existence of two distinct caspasedependent signal pathways for downregulation of Akt that works as a mechanism of positive feedback regulation for HNEtriggered apoptotic signals.