Defining the antimalarial activity of cipargamin in healthy volunteers experimentally infected with blood stage Plasmodium falciparum
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
The spiroindolone cipargamin, a new antimalarial compound that inhibits Plasmodium ATP4, is currently in clinical development. This study aimed to characterize the antimalarial activity of cipargamin in healthy volunteers experimentally infected with blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum. Eight subjects were intravenously inoculated with parasite-infected erythrocytes and received a single oral dose of 10 mg cipargamin 7 days later. Blood samples were collected to monitor the development and
... elopment and clearance of parasitemia, and plasma cipargamin concentrations. Parasite regrowth was treated with piperaquine monotherapy to clear asexual parasites, while allowing gametocyte transmissibility to mosquitoes to be investigated. An initial rapid decrease in parasitemia occurred in all participants following cipargamin dosing, with a parasite clearance half-life of 3.99 h. As anticipated from the dose selected, parasite regrowth occurred in all 8 subjects 3-8 days after dosing, and allowed the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship to be determined. Based on the limited data from the single sub-therapeutic dose cohort, a minimum inhibitory concentration of 11.6 ng/mL and minimum parasiticidal concentration that achieves 90% of maximum effect of 23.5 ng/mL was estimated, and a single 95 mg dose (95% CI: 50-270) was predicted to clear 109 parasites/mL. Low gametocyte densities were detected in all subjects following piperaquine treatment, which did not transmit to mosquitoes. Serious adverse liver function changes were observed in three subjects which led to premature study termination. The antimalarial activity characterized in this study supports the further clinical development of cipargamin as a new treatment for P. falciparum malaria, although the hepatic safety profile of the compound warrants further evaluation.