Hybrid Application Layer Protocol Design for IoT Environments
6th International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology (CSEIT-2019)
One of the important factors affecting communication performance in the Internet of Things is the messaging protocol. MQTT, XMPP and AMQP are centralized application protocols that communicate through the server. DDS and CoAP are application protocols that can communicate directly, especially in real-time applications. As the Internet of Things is becoming more widespread and usage scenarios have different requirements, new approaches to data communication are required. In this study, a UDP
... is study, a UDP based hybrid application layer protocol has been designed which can communicate both directly and through central server. In addition, operating logic and packet structure of the developed hybrid protocol is examined. MQTT, AMQP and XMPP protocols are central protocols that use servers for data transfer  . In this approach, there is no direct communication between the client (or user) and the IoT Device. Protocols such as CoAP and DDS are direct communication protocols that work in decentralized approach ,  . Both centralized and the decentralized approaches have several advantages and disadvantages. One of the most important advantages of the decentralized approach is its ability to communicate directly . However, administrative difficulties are themain disadvantages of this architecture  . One of the most important advantages of central communication is that the communication can be controlled by the server. However, the use of the server causes a single point of failure  ,  - . In this study, a hybrid application layer protocol (hIoT) is designed for data communication which provides both server-based and direct communication. The designed protocol has been developed in order to transfer low-dimensional data generated by sensors in devices with limited resources and in low bandwidth environments. In the developed protocol, both communication methods can be used for different purposes and needs. In addition, dynamic switching can be made between these two methods. In the second part of the article, academic studies on IoT protocols are discussed. In the third section, the general working principle of the designed application protocol, packet structures, and protocol components are examined. In the last section of the article, a summary of the study and the advantages of the proposed protocol are given and suggestions are made to shed light on future studies.