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Bacterial chromosomes harbor toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, some of which are implicated in the formation of multidrug-tolerant persister cells. In Escherichia coli, toxin TisB from the tisB/istR-1 TA system depolarizes the inner membrane and causes ATP depletion, which presumably favors persister formation. Transcription of tisB is induced upon DNA damage due to activation of the SOS response by LexA degradation. Transcriptional activation of tisB is counteracted on the post-transcriptionaldoi:10.3390/microorganisms9050943 pmid:33925723 fatcat:6ko4ucudmjaqjgtrm6jgpwbjfq