Duty-cycle optimization for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks
Pangun Park, Sinem Coleri Ergen, Carlo Fischione, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
ACM transactions on sensor networks
Most applications of wireless sensor networks require reliable and timely data communication with maximum possible network lifetime under low traffic regime. These requirements are very critical especially for the stability of wireless sensor and actuator networks. Designing a protocol that satisfies these requirements in a network consisting of sensor nodes with traffic pattern and location varying over time and space is a challenging task. We propose an adaptive optimal duty-cycle algorithm
... nning on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control to minimize power consumption while meeting the reliability and delay requirements. Such a problem is complicated because simple and accurate models of the effects of the duty cycle on reliability, delay, and power consumption are not available. Moreover, the scarce computational resources of the devices and the lack of prior information about the topology make it impossible to compute the optimal parameters of the protocols. Based on an experimental implementation, we propose simple experimental models to expose the dependency of reliability, delay, and power consumption on the duty cycle at the node and validate it through extensive experiments. The coefficients of the experimental-based models can be easily computed on existing IEEE 802.15.4 hardware platforms by introducing a learning phase without any explicit information about data traffic, network topology, and medium access control parameters. The experimental-based model is then used to derive a distributed adaptive algorithm for minimizing the power consumption while meeting the reliability and delay requirements in the packet transmission. The algorithm is easily implementable on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control without any modifications of the protocol. An experimental implementation of the distributed adaptive algorithm on a test bed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor devices is presented. The experimental performance of the algorithms is compared to the existing solutions from the literature. The experimental results show that the experimentalbased model is accurate and that the proposed adaptive algorithm attains the optimal value of the duty cycle, maximizing the lifetime of the network while meeting the reliability and delay constraints under both stationary and transient conditions. Specifically, even if the number of devices and their traffic configuration change sharply, the proposed adaptive algorithm allows the network to operate close to its optimal value. Furthermore, for Poisson arrivals, the duty-cycle protocol is modeled as a finite capacity queuing system in a star network. This simple analytical model provides insights into the performance metrics, including the reliability, average delay, and average power consumption of the duty-cycle protocol.