Chronic kidney disease long-term outcomes
Oxford Medicine Online
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a variety of outcomes, some of which are directly and indirectly related to kidney disease, but which ultimately impact on patients' quality of life and long-term outcomes. The events to which people with CKD are exposed ultimately determine their risk and prognosis of both progression to needing renal replacement therapy, or other morbidities and mortalities. The notion of competing risk is important. The five major outcomes of CKD are:
... CKD are: progression of CKD, progression to ESRD (either dialysis or transplantation); death; cardiovascular events; infections; and hospitalizations. Where data is available, not only the risk of the specific outcome, but the factors which may predict those outcomes are described. Each section describes what is currently known about the frequency of the outcome, the limitations of that knowledge, the risk factors associated with outcome, and implications for care and future research. Available published literature often describes outcomes in CKD populations as if it is a homogenous group of patients. But it is well documented that outcomes in those with CKD differ depending on stage or severity, and whether they are or are not known to specialists. Where possible, each section ensures that the specific CKD cohort(s) from which the information is derived is clearly described.