The role of archaeology in cultural resource management

Arlene Jeanne Yip
A new field in archaeology, cultural resource management, emerged during the environmental and conservation movements of the mid 1960s and early 1970s. The term cultural resource management (CRM) was first introduced into the archaeological literature by American archaeologists. CRM combines the philosophy of conservation (i.e. the preservation and public stewardship of archaeological resource for future use) with management skills to create a process to assess and mitigate archaeological
more » ... ces affected by adverse impacts. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine the development of CRM in Canada at the federal and provincial levels and to present alternative conservation strategies that may prove to be as effective as present government heritage legislation and policies. To achieve these aims, first the general literature on CRM is reviewed. From this examination, archaeology, cultural resources and CRM are defined. Second, CRM in the United States and Canada is discussed by examining federal preservation laws and environmental policies which address the issue of archaeological resources located on federal lands. Emphasis is placed on the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This Act introduced an environmental impact assessment process that became the model used to identify, evaluate, assess and mitigate archaeological resources affected by a project's actions. Third, a study is made of a provincial policy guideline and an impact assessment procedure for archaeological resources. Using this literature review, an evaluation of the provincial archaeology agency is presented. Fourth, alternative methods for conserving and managing archaeological resources are analyzed. Finally, after a brief summary, policy recommendations are presented for developing an integrated planning approach to facilitate the achievement of a more effective CRM plan. Examination and analysis of the literature concerning CRM in Canada reveals several main problems. The four most important deficiencies are: 1) a failu [...]
doi:10.14288/1.0100606 fatcat:y4qunzmsl5h5tcfhhvkgoi5vhy