A validated stable HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of rifampicin and 25-O-desacetyl rifampicin – evaluation of in vitro metabolism
A simple, efficient, and stable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation method for a combination of rifampicin (RIF), its major metabolite 25-O-desacetyl rifampicin (25ODESRIF), and neostigmine (NEO) was developed and validated. The drugs individually, and in combination, were analyzed using a Waters Alliance 2695 HPLC coupled with 2996 photodiode array detector (PDA). Successful separation of combined drugs was achieved by gradient elution on a reverse-phase C-18 Phenomenex
... a column, using a mobile phase consisting of water and methanol at detection wavelength of 254 nm. The HPLC retention times were consistent at ±7.70 min, ±8.25 min, and ±10.70 min for RIF, 25ODESRIF, and NEO, respectively. The regression data for the calibration plots exhibited linear relationship (R 2 = 0.995) in the range of 0-200 μM for both RIF and 25ODESRIF, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were calculated at 5.86 μM and 17.75 μM for RIF and 7.78 μM and 23.57 μM for 25ODESRIF, respectively. The method was evaluated using in vitro human liver microsomes (HLMs) assays, and linearity was established for the 15, 30, 45, and 60 min incubations (R 2 = 0.99). The formation of 25ODESRIF was characterized by hyperbolic kinetics (K m 48.23 μM, V max 1.233 pmol/min/mg protein, and CL int 0.026 μl/min/mg protein). The method was applied in HLM assays to understand the herb-drug interaction (HDI) potential of Althaea officinalis, a popular African herb consumed by tuberculosis (TB) patients, with RIF. None of the extracts of A. officinalis inhibited the esterase-mediated metabolism pathway of RIF, compared to the positive control nelfinavir (IC 50 = 9.59 μM). The method provides a tool for quantifying RIF and 25ODESRIF in in vitro drug metabolism assays as well as investigating herb-and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes -if any -are indicated.