Bifidobacterium reduction is associated with high blood pressure in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have an elevated risk of abnormal blood pressure (BP) measurements and patterns. Both hypertension and T1DM are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. The human microbiome has been linked to both diabetes and hypertension, but the relationship between the gut microbiome and BP in children with T1DM is not well-understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between resting office BP and gut
... fice BP and gut microbiota composition, diversity, and richness in children with T1DM and healthy controls. We recruited 29 pediatric subjects and divided them into three groups: healthy controls (HC, n = 5), T1DM with normal BP (T1DM-Normo, n = 17), and T1DM with elevated BP (T1DM-HBP, n = 7). We measured the BP, dietary and clinical parameters for each subject. We collected fecal samples to perform the 16s rDNA sequencing and to measure the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) level. The microbiome downstream analysis included the relative abundance of microbiota, alpha and beta diversity, microbial markers using Linear Discriminant effect size analysis (LEfSe), potential gut microbial metabolic pathways using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) and metabolic pathways validation using Statistical Inference of Associations between Microbial Communities And host phenotype (SIAMCAT) machine learning toolbox. Our study results showed that T1DM-HBP group had distinct gut microbial composition (at multiple taxonomic levels) and reduced diversity (richness and abundance) compared with T1DM-Normo and HC groups. Children with T1DM-HBP showed a significant reduction of Bifidobacterium levels (especially B. adolescentis, B. bifidum, and B. longum) compared to the T1DM-Normo group. We also observed unique gut-microbial metabolic pathways, such as elevated lipopolysaccharide synthesis and glutathione metabolism in children with T1DM-HBP compared to T1DM-Normo children. We can conclude that the reduction in the abundance of genus Bifidobacterium could play a significant role in elevating the BP in pediatric T1DM subjects. More studies are needed to corroborate our findings and further explore the potential contributing mechanisms we describe.