Limites subjetivos da convenção de arbitragem
The arbitration agreement may have a larger subjective scope than the one that is actually conferred to it by the agreement in which it operates. Individuals who have not adhered expressly to the arbitration agreement may be subject to it, and such situation does not imply that referred arbitration agreement is against their free will, since the fact that they have not consented in writing does not mean that they have not done so tacitly. Thus, it is possible that non-signatories are parties to
... ries are parties to the arbitration agreement. The arbitral practice identified several situations in which judges and arbitrators often have to determine whether there is a consent by non-signatories: the existence of a group of companies or a group of contracts; incorporation by reference; the stipulation in favor of third party; the existence of representation; the transfer of an agreement by assignment or succession and subrogation; and the abuse of legal personality, which can lead to the piercing of the corporate veil. Moreover, U.S. courts make use of a theory called estoppel, according to which an individual, under certain circumstances, is estopped from denying the enforceability of the arbitration clause. The limits of the arbitration agreement have been object of study in the arbitration scene for a long period of time, but only recently the question began to be discussed in Brazil. Analysis of the Brazilian Arbitration Law demonstrates that many of the lessons learned in the international arena may be applicable in Brazil.