Advances in Soft and Dry Electrodes for Wearable Health Monitoring Devices

Hyeonseok Kim, Eugene Kim, Chanyeong Choi, Woon-Hong Yeo
2022 Micromachines  
Electrophysiology signals are crucial health status indicators as they are related to all human activities. Current demands for mobile healthcare have driven considerable interest in developing skin-mounted electrodes for health monitoring. Silver-Silver chloride-based (Ag-/AgCl) wet electrodes, commonly used in conventional clinical practice, provide excellent signal quality, but cannot monitor long-term signals due to gel evaporation and skin irritation. Therefore, the focus has shifted to
more » ... eloping dry electrodes that can operate without gels and extra adhesives. Compared to conventional wet electrodes, dry ones offer various advantages in terms of ease of use, long-term stability, and biocompatibility. This review outlines a systematic summary of the latest research on high-performance soft and dry electrodes. In addition, we summarize recent developments in soft materials, biocompatible materials, manufacturing methods, strategies to promote physical adhesion, methods for higher breathability, and their applications in wearable biomedical devices. Finally, we discuss the developmental challenges and advantages of various dry electrodes, while suggesting research directions for future studies.
doi:10.3390/mi13040629 pmid:35457934 pmcid:PMC9029742 fatcat:lyq5j3gf7bgjjgk4oz54oblr6u