Acquisition, translativity and transfer of a matching to sample task under different language modes

Daniel Gómez Fuentes, Emilio Ribes Iñesta
2010 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research - MB '10  
The linguistic modes during its acquisition are identified as complementary pairs (King & Quigley, 1985; Marschark, 1993; Rondal, 1980) . These pairs are named active and reactive based depending on its functional relationship. The acquisition of the reactive modes precedes the active one and it is necessary to give feedback to the precision and efficiency of the active modes. The pairs gesticulating/ pointing-observing, writing-reading and speaking-listening can therefore, be identified. The
more » ... active modes represent functions of the individual such as reader listener and observer. The active modes work as mediators of other modes. They represent the individual's actions such as: pointer/gesticulator, speaker and writer (Ribes, 1990; Gómez Fuentes, & Ribes, 2008) . The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acquisition, translativity and transference of the performance of the language modes in two different arrangements related to conditional discrimination, matching to sample of first and second orders, using direct and arbitrary relationships among stimuli and techniques to evaluate the effect of the intrinsic feedback provided by the reactive modes on the active ones. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES USED A pre-test and post-test design are used, five training sessions and three transference tests for each language mode. The language modes during the training, and the transference conditions were presented in three different sequences. The order for presenting the transference tests in each mode remained constant in all the experiments. The participants were 96 children experimentally unaware, aged 8-12, from fourth grade of elementary school of Veracruz, México. The program, tasks and data gathering were designed by using the Toolbook Instructor of Windows. The independent variable used was the intrinsic feedback: the presence of the intrinsic feedback performed by the reactive mode before the active one or its absence when the active modes are performed without the active ones. The dependent variables used were: 1) speed and completion level of the acquisition of behaviors during the first stage in the training sequence; 2) translativity of a same kind of performance from one mode to another during the training sequence; and 3) transference of behaviors as a result of the previous training with stimuli, modalities or diverse criteria. A first package of four experiments was carried out, then a second package of four experiments. In the two packages, experimental arrangements were used: matching to sample of first and second orders, under the active modes with or without reactive feedback. The only difference was the kind of relationship between the stimuli used and the tasks. In the first package, criteria of direct matching among stimuli were used. In the second one, an arbitrary matching only. The tasks of the first order were designed using a sample stimulus and three for comparison. One of the comparing stimuli was identical to the sample, others were similar in shape, color or size, and the third was different in shape, color or size. In a direct matching, geometrical shapes were used. In the arbitrary matching, the geometrical shape stimulus was substituted by a rectangle that included numerical stimuli, roman and arabic numbers. The first ones were able to identify the shape and the second ones, the color or the size of the figure. In the matching to sample of the second order, two stimuli were presented in the upper part of the screen, indicating the matching criteria. In the middle part of the screen, a sample stimulus was used, and in the lower part, four comparing stimuli. One of the comparing stimuli was identical to the sample; two were similar in shape, color or size. In direct matching, some geometrical stimuli were used. In the upper part of the screen, in arbitrary matching, one of the geometrical stimuli was substituted by a rectangle that included roman and arabic numbers. In the ______________________________ Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. For any other use, please contact the Measuring Behavior secretariat:
doi:10.1145/1931344.1931381 dblp:conf/mb/FuentesI10 fatcat:cyx4amf2ovcktb7hyvakkcij6e