Ecological Engineering and Restoration of Eroded Muddy Coasts in South East Asia: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations
Ecological engineering (EE) was employed for developing strategies for stabilizing eroded muddy coasts (EMCs). However, there was a limited analysis of these EE strategies with respect to design, performance, and lessons learned. This study employed a critical review for addressing the limitations. There were four EE models designed with different restoration interventions for stabilizing EMCs. The models using active interventions have not been cost-effective in controlling erosion because the
... erosion because the interventions failed to achieve their goals or were costly and unnecessary. Of the two passive intervention models, the one with structures constructed from onshore proved to be more cost-effective in terms of construction costs, the survival rate of transplanted seedlings, and levels of sea mud accumulation. Interventions with adequate consideration of the muddy coastal ecological processes and the ecological reasoning for the positioning of these interventions play a crucial role in stabilizing EMCs. A passive restoration model using gradually expanded interventions should be promoted in order to ensure sustainable management of EMCs in the future.