Exploring the energy use drivers of 10 cities at microscale level

Aristide Athanassiadis, Gabriela Fernandez, Joao Meirelles, Franziska Meinherz, Paul Hoekman, Yves Bettignies Cari
2017 Energy Procedia  
District heating networks are commonly addressed in the literature as one of the most effective solutions for decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat sales. Due to the changed climate conditions and building renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease, prolonging the investment return period. The main scope of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using the heat demand
more » ... the heat demand -outdoor temperature function for heat demand forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665 buildings that vary in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district renovation scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors. The results showed that when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications (the error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation scenarios, the error value increased up to 59.5% (depending on the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered). The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the decrease in the number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination of weather and renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased for 7.8-12.7% per decade (depending on the coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios considered, and improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations. Abstract Cities are responsible for the predominant share of anthropogenic environmental pressures. Recently, consistent methodologies to measure the metabolism of cities have been developed in order to enhance comparability between case studies and enable crosscity comparisons at the macro-scale. This comparison illustrated potential factors and drivers explaining macro-scale differences between cities. However, such studies rely on very few data points and look at cities as homogenous entities omitting their complex functioning. When looking at the relationships between urban characteristics and metabolic flows at smaller spatial scales, drivers appear to be different than in macroscopic analyses, pointing towards the importance of taking microscale urban heterogeneity into account. The aim of this paper is to improve our understanding of these effects by analyzing the relationship between energy use and various urban indicators at a microscale level for ten cities (Brussels, Buenos Aires, Cape Town, Chicago, Glasgow, London, Los Angeles, Milan, New York City and San Francisco). Abstract Cities are responsible for the predominant share of anthropogenic environmental pressures. Recently, consistent methodologies to measure the metabolism of cities have been developed in order to enhance comparability between case studies and enable crosscity comparisons at the macro-scale. This comparison illustrated potential factors and drivers explaining macro-scale differences between cities. However, such studies rely on very few data points and look at cities as homogenous entities omitting their complex functioning. When looking at the relationships between urban characteristics and metabolic flows at smaller spatial scales, drivers appear to be different than in macroscopic analyses, pointing towards the importance of taking microscale urban heterogeneity into account. The aim of this paper is to improve our understanding of these effects by analyzing the relationship between energy use and various urban indicators at a microscale level for ten cities (Brussels, Buenos Aires, Cape Town, Chicago, Glasgow, London, Los Angeles, Milan, New York City and San Francisco). Abstract Cities are responsible for the predominant share of anthropogenic environmental pressures. Recently, consistent methodologies to measure the metabolism of cities have been developed in order to enhance comparability between case studies and enable crosscity comparisons at the macro-scale. This comparison illustrated potential factors and drivers explaining macro-scale differences between cities. However, such studies rely on very few data points and look at cities as homogenous entities omitting their complex functioning. When looking at the relationships between urban characteristics and metabolic flows at smaller spatial scales, drivers appear to be different than in macroscopic analyses, pointing towards the importance of taking microscale urban heterogeneity into account. The aim of this paper is to improve our understanding of these effects by analyzing the relationship between energy use and various urban indicators at a microscale level for ten cities (Brussels, Buenos Aires, Cape Town, Chicago, Glasgow, London, Los Angeles, Milan, New York City and San Francisco).
doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.374 fatcat:cahsnonfpjfrfbplpff6wj3ap4