Chromatin 3D structure reconstruction with consideration of adjacency relationship among genomic loci
Chromatin 3D conformation plays important roles in regulating gene or protein functions. High-throughout chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based technologies, such as Hi-C, have been exploited to acquire the contact frequencies among genomic loci at genome-scale. Various computational tools have been proposed to recover the underlying chromatin 3D structures from in situ Hi-C contact map data. As connected residuals in a polymer, neighboring genomic loci have intrinsic mutual dependencies in
... ual dependencies in building a 3D conformation. However, current methods seldom take this feature into account. We present a method called ShNeigh, which combines the classical MDS technique with local dependence of neighboring loci modeled by a Gaussian formula, to infer the best 3D structure from noisy and incomplete contact frequency matrices. We validated ShNeigh by comparing it to two typical distance-based algorithms, ShRec3D and ChromSDE. The comparison results on simulated Hi-C dataset showed that, while keeping the high-speed nature of classical MDS, ShNeigh can recover the true structure better than ShRec3D and ChromSDE. Meanwhile, ShNeigh is more robust to data noise. On the publicly available human GM06990 Hi-C data, we demonstrated that the structures reconstructed by ShNeigh are more reproducible between different restriction enzymes than by ShRec3D and ChromSDE, especially at high resolutions manifested by sparse contact maps, which means ShNeigh is more robust to signal coverage. Our method can recover stable structures in high noise and sparse signal settings. It can also reconstruct similar structures from Hi-C data obtained using different restriction enzymes. Therefore, our method provides a new direction for enhancing the reconstruction quality of chromatin 3D structures.