Fetal and Placental Weight in Pre-Gestational Maternal Obesity (PGMO) vs. Excessive Gestational Weight Gain (EGWG)—A Preliminary Approach to the Perinatal Outcomes in Diet-Controlled Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Journal of Clinical Medicine
Both pre-gestational maternal obesity (PGMO) and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to comparatively examine the relation between fetal birth weight (FW) and placental weight (PW) in PGMO (n = 100) compared to EGWG (n = 100) with respect to perinatal outcomes in diet-controlled GDM. The control group was made up of 100 healthy pregnancies. The mean FW and the mean PW in EGWG were correlated
... WG were correlated with lowered fetal weight/placental weight ratio (FW/PW ratio). The percentage of births completed by cesarean section accounted for 47%, 32%, and 18% of all deliveries (EGWG, PGMO, and controls, respectively), with the predominance of FW-related indications for cesarean section. Extended postpartum hospital stays due to neonate were more frequent in EGWG, especially due to neonatal jaundice (p < 0.05). The results indicate the higher perinatal risk in mothers with EGWG compared to PGMO during GDM-complicated pregnancy. Further in-depth comparative studies involving larger patient pools are needed to validate these findings, the intent of which is to formulate guidelines for GDM patients in respect to management of PGMO and EGWG.