Human Rhinovirus Types and Association with Respiratory Symptoms During the First Year of Life
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
The most effective management strategy for viral infections is prevention through vaccines, as reported in a pilot study of herpes zoster vaccination in 10 adult SLE patients older than 50 years of age, 12 but the efficacy and safety of this live-attenuated virus vaccine in a large SLE population is unknown. In conclusion, lupus in children has a higher susceptibility to HZI and is characterized by a shorter disease duration, disease activity and lower frequency of postherpetic neuralgia than
... adults with SLE. Both groups have a comparable and good overall outcome. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Our gratitude to Ulysses Doria-Filho for the statistical analysis. REFERENCES 1. Lee PP, Lee TL, Ho MH, et al. Herpes zoster in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: incidence, clinical characteristics and risk factors. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:728-732. 2. Chakravarty EF, Michaud K, Katz R, et al. Increased incidence of herpes zoster among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2013;22:238-244. 3. Hochberg MC. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40:1725. 4. Kawai K, Gebremeskel BG, Acosta CJ. Systematic review of incidence and complications of herpes zoster: towards a global perspective. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004833. 5. Kost RG, Straus SE. Postherpetic neuralgia-pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:32-42. 6. Gladman DD, Goldsmith CH, Urowitz MB, et al. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) damage index for systemic lupus erythematosus international comparison. J Rheumatol. 2000;27:373-376. 7. Gladman DD, Ibañez D, Urowitz MB. Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:288-291. 8. Barbosa CM, Terreri MT, Rosário PO, et al. Immune response and tolerability of varicella vaccine in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus previously exposed to varicella-zoster virus. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30:791-798. 9. Park HB, Kim KC, Park JH, et al. Association of reduced CD4 T cell responses specific to varicella zoster virus with high incidence of herpes zoster in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:2151-2155. 10. Borba EF, Ribeiro AC, Martin P, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of herpes zoster in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Rheumatol. 2010;16:119-122. 11. Faco MM, Leone C, Campos LM, et al. Factors associated to death in patients hospitalized with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:993-1002. 12. Guthridge JM, Cogman A, Merrill JT, et al. Herpes zoster vaccination in SLE: a pilot study of immunogenicity. Abstract: Human rhinoviruses (HRV) cause respiratory infections and are associated with asthma development. We assessed HRV prevalence, types and association with respiratory symptoms in the first year of life in 20 unselected infants. HRV was detected in 32% of 825 weekly nasal swabs. Seventy-four different types of all three species were identified. HRV presence and related respiratory symptoms are highly heterogeneous.