Institutional Set-Up and Mandates of Macroprudential Authorities:International Experience and Benchmarks for Ukraine
Visnyk of the National Bank of Ukraine
Defining macroprudential authority is one of the key steps in ensuring financial stability. Within the framework of general principles defined by international institutions lie various versions of macroprudential architectures realized by individual countries. Such solutions were shaped by the level of the financial system's sophistication, the government's role, and the central bank's mandate. Yet the dominating trend is to entrust the macroprudential mandate to a central bank, especially if
... nk, especially if it already has a wide mandate for supervision and regulation of the financial sector. This is especially typical for emerging markets. In most of the reviewed countries, central banks apply macroprudential instruments. The analysis of specificities of the Ukrainian bank-dominated financial system 1 as well as of international practices points to the most rational solution: to affirm legally the National Bank's macroprudential mandate in the nearest future. Cooperation within the Financial Stability Council should also be further enhanced. JEL codes: G280, E580 Keywords: macroprudential mandate, macroprudential authorities, central bank, interagency financial stability boards І. IntroductIon Demand from businesses and the public for financial stability was a legitimate reaction to the global crisis of 2007-2009. We see "financial stability" as a state in which the financial system is capable of performing its key functions efficiently and smoothly, i.e. financial intermediation and arrangement of payments, thus contributing to sustainable economic growth and resilience to crises' impact on economy. Or, as Garry J. Schinasi (2006) summed it up, many researchers define financial stability as the "absence of financial instability." In order to achieve financial stability, appointed (or newly established) authorities design and implement macroprudential policy (MPP). In other words, the authorities execute a macroprudential mandate (MPM). As we speak of public authorities, their objectives and rights should be laid down in laws (or other legal acts or regulations) according to the basic principle of public law: a public authority can do only those things that it is allowed to do by a body of laws. Through the last decade, both developed and emerging market countries searched for the optimal framework of bodies responsible for financial stability and reflect this solution in legal acts. It is hard to evaluate these solutions yet: the time that has passed since their implementation is usually too short. 2 Additionally, there are no commonly accepted units or systems to measure financial stability. 1 Also referred to as bank-centric; that is, banks control the prevailing share in the financial system assets, dominate on capital markets, and distribute the largest proportion of savings in the economy. 2 There have been certain works lately dedicated to attempts to measure MPP efficiency. The authors tended to concentrate so far mostly on analysis of individual country experiences or efficiency of certain instruments. However, there a new works (Bruno, Shim, and Shin (2015) and Akinci and Olmstead-Rumsey (2015) ) that indicate the topic drives attention and is promising for further research.