Comparing Compressed Sequences for Faster Nucleotide BLAST Searches
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology & Bioinformatics
Molecular biologists, geneticists, and other life scientists use the blast homology search package as their first step for discovery of information about unknown or poorly annotated genomic sequences. There are two main variants of blast: blastp for searching protein collections and blastn for nucleotide collections. Surprisingly, blastn has had very little attention; for example, the algorithms it uses do not follow those described in the 1997 blast paper (Altschul, Madden, Schaffer, Zhang,
... Schaffer, Zhang, Zhang, Miller & Lipman 1997) and no exact description has been published. It is important that blastn is state-of-the-art: nucleotide collections such as GenBank dwarf the protein collections in size, they double in size almost yearly, and take many minutes to search on modern general-purpose workstations. This paper proposes significant improvements to the blastn algorithms. Each of our schemes is based on compressed bytepacked formats that allow queries and collection sequences to be compared four bases at a time, permitting very fast query evaluation using lookup tables and numeric comparisons. Our most significant innovations are two new, fast gapped alignment schemes that allow accurate sequence alignment without decompression of the collection sequences. Overall, our innovations more than double the speed of blastn with no effect on accuracy and have been integrated into our new version of blast that is freely available for download from http://www.fsa-blast.org/.