Constraints from Geochemistry and Field Relationships for the Origin of Kornerupine-Bearing Gneiss from the Grenvillian New Jersey Highlands and Implications for the Source of Boron

Richard A. Volkert
2019 Minerals  
Kornerupine ± prismatine is present in granulite-facies paragneiss at two locations in the Grenvillian New Jersey Highlands, occurring in an assemblage composed of quartz + biotite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + garnet + Fe-Ti oxides ± sillimanite ± rutile ± graphite. Estimates of the metamorphic conditions of the host gneiss are ≥600 MPa and ~740 °C during the Ottawan phase of the Grenvillian Orogeny. Geochemical compositions of kornerupine-bearing gneiss are consistent with protoliths that were
more » ... graywacke sandstone and pelite. Metagraywacke is characterized by (in wt. %) 62–76% SiO2, 0.3–0.8% TiO2, 13–16% Al2O3, 0.6–4.3% CaO, 2.2–6.4% Na2O, 1.7–7.4% K2O, and 90–260 ppm Zr; metapelite has lower SiO2 (53–66%) and CaO (0.5–2.0%), higher TiO2 (0.9–1.8%), Al2O3, (15–26%), and Zr (210–490 ppm), and comparable Na2O (2.5–4.9%) and K2O (2.5–7.4%). Indices of weathering and alteration yield low to intermediate values implying a relatively unweathered sediment source. Provenance discriminants suggest the protoliths formed from immature, first-cycle sediments derived mainly from a felsic arc-related source. The geological relationships of kornerupine-bearing gneiss are most compatible with boron sourced from B-rich sediments deposited in the protoliths between ca. 1299 and 1238 Ma. The breakdown of these sediments due to dehydration reactions during Ottawan prograde metamorphism led to mobilization of a B-rich fluid that migrated short distances to favorable structural sites in the host gneiss, resulting in precipitation of the borosilicates.
doi:10.3390/min9070431 fatcat:7gxken6qmncv7ns4l4x6zfxira