ILP-based maximum likelihood genome scaffolding

James Lindsay, Hamed Salooti, Ion Măndoiu, Alex Zelikovsky
2014 BMC Bioinformatics  
Interest in de novo genome assembly has been renewed in the past decade due to rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies which generate relatively short reads resulting in highly fragmented assemblies consisting of contigs. Additional long-range linkage information is typically used to orient, order, and link contigs into larger structures referred to as scaffolds. Due to library preparation artifacts and erroneous mapping of reads originating from repeats, scaffolding
more » ... ins a challenging problem. In this paper, we provide a scalable scaffolding algorithm (SILP2) employing a maximum likelihood model capturing read mapping uncertainty and/or non-uniformity of contig coverage which is solved using integer linear programming. A Non-Serial Dynamic Programming (NSDP) paradigm is applied to render our algorithm useful in the processing of larger mammalian genomes. To compare scaffolding tools, we employ novel quantitative metrics in addition to the extant metrics in the field. We have also expanded the set of experiments to include scaffolding of low-complexity metagenomic samples. Results: SILP2 achieves better scalability throughg a more efficient NSDP algorithm than previous release of SILP. The results show that SILP2 compares favorably to previous methods OPERA and MIP in both scalability and accuracy for scaffolding single genomes of up to human size, and significantly outperforms them on scaffolding low-complexity metagenomic samples. Conclusions: Equipped with NSDP, SILP2 is able to scaffold large mammalian genomes, resulting in the longest and most accurate scaffolds. The ILP formulation for the maximum likelihood model is shown to be flexible enough to handle metagenomic samples.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-s9-s9 pmid:25253180 pmcid:PMC4168704 fatcat:ioln24ljmfcwngp24udhhylcaq