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In this article, a magnetic sensor is proposed to monitor borehole deviation during tunnel excavation. It is made by piling four super-strong N42 NdFeB cylinder magnets and then encasing them in an aluminum alloy hollow cylinder. The distribution of the magnetic field produced by the magnetic sensor and its summation with the geomagnetic field (GMF) in a global coordinate system are derived based on the theory of magnetic fields. An algorithm is developed to localize the position of thedoi:10.3390/ma11091511 pmid:30142900 fatcat:cpuzhv64bzg3josacfvrhtdbk4