The role of microglia in Alzheimer's disease and progress of treatment

Yi‐Huan Guan, Ling‐Jing Zhang, Shi‐Ya Wang, Ya‐Dan Deng, Hong‐Su Zhou, Dong‐Qing Chen, Lan‐Chun Zhang
2022 Ibrain  
Microglia are permanent immune cells of the central nervous system. Microglia play an important role in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). They are mainly involved in the uptake and clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ), as well as the formation of neuroinflammation. We found that overactivated microglia increase Aβ and Tau, and Aβ and Tau in turn act as activators of microglia. Additionally, various cytokines and proteins, high cholesterol, and telomere shortening are all associated
more » ... th microglia activation. More activated microglia induce the release of inflammatory and antiinflammatory factors to regulate inflammation, while microglia express multiple homologous receptors that bind to neuroimmunomodulators to prevent microglia overactivation. Moreover, aging of the body promotes neuroinflammation by increasing the response to IFN-γ (interferon-γ), and aging of the microglia themselves promotes AD by inducing the accumulation of large amounts of iron and reducing autophagy by regulating protein levels. Cognitive dysfunction occurs when activated microglia induce an increase in beta oligomers, promoting the production of pro-inflammatory factors that alter the shape, composition, and density of synapses. Based on their correlation, microglia-mediated AD therapy as well as the corresponding targets and drugs are discussed. In contrast to similar reviews, this article also summarizes some novel microglia-mediated AD treatment methods over the recent years. K E Y W O R D S aging, Alzheimer disease, growth and development, microglia 1 | INTRODUCTION 1.1 | Alzheimer disease Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known as senile dementia, is a typical neurodegenerative disease, mainly manifested as progressive memory impairment, cognitive dysfunction, language impairment, and personality changes and other neuropsychiatric symptoms, and adversely affects patients' social, professional, and daily lives. With the aging of the population, about one-third of the elderly over the age of 85 years will suffer from AD,
doi:10.1002/ibra.12023 fatcat:2lx5zbeqprffzhiz2qhayfxb7m