Gender-Inclusive HCI Research and Design: A Conceptual Review [book]

Simone Stumpf, Anicia Peters, Shaowen Bardzell, Margaret Burnett, Daniela Busse, Jessica Cauchard, Elizabeth Churchill
2020 unpublished
This is the accepted version of the paper. This version of the publication may differ from the final published version. Permanent repository link: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/23885/ Link to published version: http://dx.ABSTRACT Previous research has investigated gender and its implications for HCI. We consider inclusive design of technology whatever the gender of its users of particular importance. This conceptual review provides an overview of the motivations that have driven
more » ... t have driven research in gender and inclusive HCI design. We review the empirical evidence for the impact of gender in thinking and behavior which underlies HCI research and design. We then present how HCI design might inadvertently embed and perpetuate gender stereotypes. We then present current HCI design approaches to tackle gender stereotypes and to produce gender-inclusive designs. We conclude by discussing possible future directions in this area. Recent HCI design approaches have sought to address the marginalization of user groups in an effort toward 'universal usability '. Newell and Gregor [155] proposed 'User Sensitive Inclusive Design' for the design of technology and this requires an explicit focus on considering who the 'user' is [176] , usually adapting typical user-centered design techniques and processes to include people with disabilities. More recently, inclusive HCI design has been conceptualized as the design of technology so that The version of record is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1100000056 Women often tend to use the same kinds of software as everyone else. For example, 58% of women in the US have used online banking applications and 35% mobile banking, compared with 63% and 35% of men, respectively [75] . According to Pew Research [2], as many men as women accessed social networking sites from their cellphones (41% of women and 39% of men). Even games, in the past primarily used by men, have now been used almost as frequently by women, for example, in 2018, 45% of gamers were women [226] . The previous gender gap in social media, skewed towards women, is rapidly closing, to 80% of women vs. 73% of men [2, 67]. LinkedIn's user base turned from being predominantly men to 44% women and 56% men in 2019 [227] . However, there have been gender differences in the software bought and used. Turning again to games, although games are played and enjoyed by everyone to a similar amount [228], many of the games they chose to play are different. For example, RuneScape reported in 2014 that 84% of their game players were men [107] . Another example domain is mobile applications. Women have predominantly used apps for social media, news, productivity, lifestyle and books, whereas men used more apps related to business, games, travel, health and fitness, and navigation apps. Table 1 .1 summarizes some of the reported similarities and differences with mobile applications. Women make up about half the population (e.g., the US Census 2010 reports 50.8%), and their potential in the marketplace is huge. According to a recent estimate in Forbes Magazine, women drive 70%-80% of consumer purchasing [26] . The Harvard Business Review estimated women's 2014 total income worldwide at over $18 trillion-over twice the GDPs (gross domestic product) of two of the top emerging markets (China and India) combined [185] . Women are already an important consumer sector for technology products. For example, 65% of women in the U.S.A. use a desktop computer at home, 58% a home laptop, and 18% own a smartphone (compared with 71%, 57% and 18% of men) [39] . In some areas, women have outnumbered men as consumers. For example, women seem to be the drivers in social media [21] . There are several studies confirming women's early adoption of and dominant usage The version of record is available at: http://dx.
doi:10.1561/9781680836578 fatcat:chhhp2y6ebckbcoyrj24tavbqe