Glycemic control by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes effects of fasting-mimicking diet on type 2 diabetic mice

Na Zhao, Ying-Feng Gao, Lei Bao, Jing Lei, Huan-Xiao An, Feng-Xing Pu, Rui-Ping Cheng, Ji Chen, Hua Ni, Bing-Dong Sui, Fan-Pu Ji, Cheng-Hu Hu
2021 Stem Cell Research & Therapy  
Background Hepatic steatosis is a big hurdle to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) has been shown to be an effective intervention in dyslipidemia of T2D. However, fasting may impair the normal glucose metabolism. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantation has been discovered to regulate immune reactions and reduce hyperglycemia in diabetes. However, the effect of UC-MSCs on improving the lipid metabolism disorder is not quite satisfactory.
more » ... We have investigated the efficacy comparison and interaction between FMD and UC-MSC infusion, aiming to establish effective T2D therapies and explore its mechanism. Methods C57/BL6 mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) to induce a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. Leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice were used for follow-up experiments. DIO or db/db mice were divided into 4 groups: phosphate buffer saline (PBS), UC-MSCs, FMD, and UC-MSCs + FMD. At the end of the study period, mice were fasted and sacrificed, with the measurement of physiological and biochemical indexes. In addition, the fresh liver, skin, and white adipose tissue were analyzed by histology. Results FMD restored the lipid metabolism in DIO mice, whereas its capacity to rescue hyperglycemia was uncertain. Infusion of UC-MSCs was effective in T2D glycemic control but the impact on dyslipidemia was insufficient. Furthermore, both the glucose and the lipid alterations of DIO and db/db mice recovered after UC-MSCs combined with FMD. It was proved that UC-MSCs promoted FMD effects on ameliorating hyperglycemia and restoring the lipid metabolism in T2D mice, while FMD had little promotion effect on UC-MSCs. Mechanistically, we discovered that UC-MSC infusion significantly modulated systematic inflammatory microenvironment, which contributed to concerted actions with FMD. Conclusions We established a strategy that combined UC-MSC infusion and FMD and was effective in treating T2D, which provided potential approaches for developing novel clinical T2D therapies.
doi:10.1186/s13287-021-02467-7 fatcat:6nvseowjcfcq7f6st3pphdntjy