The effect of smoking in the polymorph nuclear neutrophils' functions in patients with gingivitis
International Dental Journal of Student Research
Smoking is a habit that is widespread in today's world as its primary constituent called Nicotine makes it very addictive for the users. Smoking is an important cause of diseases related to gums. If not quitted, it may lead to progressive adverse conditions in the oral cavity like gingivitis, periodontitis and so on. This is because the functions of neutrophils are significantly affected by smoking. As a result of the suppression of the activity of the neutrophils, the overall oral health of
... individuals also become compromised. This article aims to describe the pattern and clearly delineate the difference in the condition of gingiva between smokers and nonsmokers by explaining the changes brought about by smoking on the polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Three groups of people were selected for this study. The groups were matched by age and gingival condition. Two groups consisted of people with the habit of smoking, and they were further categorized into mild smokers and heavy smokers depending on the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The third group consisted of people with no habit of smoking. This group was the control group in the study. Blood samples were taken and Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were isolated. The functions of PMNs like chemotaxis and phagocytosis were studies under different methods. The mean value for the all the three groups under clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, and the functions of neutrophils like chemotaxis and phagocytosis are obtained and after elucidating the results, it is found that smoking impairs the overall oral hygiene and the functions of neutrophils against gingival infections.It is proven that there is debasing alteration in the functions of neutrophils which could have led to the localized destruction. Hence it suggests that smoking impairs the functions of neutrophils against gingival infections. And there may be a higher possibility of this condition to progress into the next stage called periodontitis. Hence it is advisable to quit the habit as and when it is possible, and it is the role of dentists to identify such conditions and educate the patients on the adverse effects of smoking.