A (CERN) History of Accelerator Shielding

Marco Silari
2009 Nuclear Technology  
This paper provides an historical overview of accelerator shielding of accelerator shielding studies at CERN. CERN accelerators and the related shielding problems span 50 years of history and cover all major aspects which can be encountered in accelerator radiation protection. Namely: various accelerated particles (electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons, heavy ions), a wide range of energies, from a few MeV/u of the present ion injector linac to the 7 TeV of the Large Hadron Collider now
more » ... ron Collider now coming into operation, several types of primary and secondary beams (including pions, muons and neutrinos), beam intensities, and type of accelerators, from the 600 MeV synchrocyclotron of the mid-fifties to proton and ion linacs, synchrotrons providing extracted beams for fixed-target physics (the PS booster, the PS and the SPS), an electron-positron collider (LEP), proton-proton colliders (the ISR and the LHC) as well as a proton synchrotron converted into a collider (the SPS in the mid-eighties). CERN, Invited talk at the ICRS-11 and RPSD-2008, April 13-18, 2008, Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA From the early days, accelerator shieldingand radiation protection in generalhas been influenced by the increasing knowledge of health effects of ionising radiation, which has progressively decreased the dose rates allowable in occupied areas. At the same time the tools available for estimating shielding have more and more benefited from increasing computing power. Nonetheless, the simplified models of the early days are often still useful for a first estimate before going into complex and detailed Monte Carlo simulations. This paper will provide a (forcedly brief) historical overview of accelerator shielding. As the subject is extremely vast, it will be restricted to a review of the various phases of accelerator shielding studies at CERN. CERN is a good example as its accelerators and the related shielding problems span 50 years of history and cover all major aspects which can be encountered in accelerator radiation protection. Namely: various accelerated particles (electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons, heavy ions), a wide range of energies, from a few MeV/u of the present ion injector linac to the 7 TeV of the Large Hadron Collider now coming into operation, several types of primary and secondary beams (including pions, muons and neutrinos), beam intensities, and type of accelerators, from the 600 MeV synchrocyclotron of the mid-fifties to proton and ion linacs, synchrotrons providing extracted beams for fixed-target physics (the PS booster, the PS and the SPS), an electron-positron collider (LEP), proton-proton colliders (the ISR and the LHC) as well as a proton synchrotron converted into a collider (the SPS in the mid-eighties).
doi:10.13182/nt09-a9223 fatcat:5hp3clw2ajhb5kvjvnf2vyjg5i