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In-stadium spectators affect the emotional value and atmosphere of sport live broadcasts. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in Europe, the presence of in-stadium spectators, however, was suspended until further notice. Conceptualizing professional clubs as economic platforms, network effects due to the lack of in-stadium spectators may affect stakeholders' utility. Thus, the main aims of this study are to examine the influence of missing in-stadium spectators for professional clubs by investigatingdoi:10.3390/su13042312 fatcat:ydxjatmuobcy7gtm4x5co3wfpu