The relationship between depression and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of observational studies
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
The link between metabolic syndrome and depression has always been controversial. Different studies that have examined the relationship between metabolic syndrome and depression have reported different results. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine the association between depression and MetS by meta-analysis. Embase, Scopus, PubMed, and ISI were searched for publications in English from January 1990 to February 2020. Search included cohort and cross-sectional studies aimed at
... l studies aimed at examining the association between depression and MetS. The risk of bias was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity and publication bias were tested, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were conducted. 49 studies with total sample size 399,494 were analyzed. Results indicated the odds of MetS was higher in depressed compared to non-depressed individuals [OR: 1.48; 95 %CI: 1.33-1.64) vs. (OR: 1.38; 95 %CI: 1.17-1.64)]. For cross-sectional studies, depressed patients in Europe (OR = 1.35; 95 %CI: 1.47-1.99) were at higher odds of MetS compared to those in America and Asia. For cohort studies, depressed patients in America (OR = 1.46; 95 %CI: 1.16-1.84) were at higher odds of MetS than those in Europe. Cross-sectional studies indicated women with depression were at higher odds of MetS (OR = 1.95; 95 %CI: 1.38-2.74) compared to men. In both types of studies, the odds of MetS decreased with age. Metabolic syndrome is more common in depressed compared to non-depressed individuals.