EMA-Tactons: Vibrotactile External Memory Aids in an Auditory Display [chapter]

Johan Kildal, Stephen A. Brewster
2007 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Exploring any new data set always starts with gathering overview information. When this process is done non-visually, interactive sonification techniques have proved to be effective and efficient ways of getting overview information, particularly for users who are blind or visually impaired. Under certain conditions, however, the process of data analysis cannot be completed due to saturation of the user's working memory. This paper introduces EMA-Tactons, vibrotactile external memory aids that
more » ... re intended to support working memory during the process of data analysis, combining vibrotactile and audio stimuli in a multimodal interface. An iterative process led to a design that significantly improves the performance (in terms of effectiveness) of users solving complex data explorations. The results provide information about the convenience of using EMA-Tactons with other auditory displays, and the iterative design process illustrates the challenges of designing multimodal interaction techniques.
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74800-7_6 fatcat:rg4fn3oz4rhsrazvdifyjoa4ly